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STP - spanning tree protocol explained with example

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The spanning tree protocol ( STP ) is a network protocol that builds a loop free logical topology for ethernet network. The basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and the broadcast rediation that results from them. Spanning tree also allows a network design to include backup links providing fault tolerance if an active link fails. As the name suggests, stp create a spanning tree that characterizes the relationship of nodes within a network of connected layer - 2 bridges, and disable those links that are not part of the spanning tree, leaving a single active path between any two network nodes. STP is based on an algorithm that was invented by radia perlman while she was working for digital equipment corporation. In 2001, the IEEE introduced rapid spanning tree protocol (rstp) as 802.1 w. Rstp provide significant faster recovery in response to network changes or failures, introducing new convergence behaviour and bridge port roles to do this. Rstp was designed to be backwards

Nat (network address translation)

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Nat Network address translation (nat) is a method of remapping an ip address space into another by modifying network address information in the ip header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing devices. The technique was originally used to avoid the need to assign a new address to every host when a network was moved, or when the upstream internet service provider was replaced, but could not Route the network address space. It has become a popular and essential tool in conserving global address space in the face of ipv4 address exhaustion. One internet routable IP address of a NAT gate way can be used for an entire private network. Ip masquerading is a technique that hides an entire IP address space, usually consisting of private IP addresses, behind a single IP address in another, usually public address space. The hidden addresses are changed into a single (public) IP address as the source address of the outgoing IP packets so they appear as originating not from

TFTP (travel file transfer protocol) | byblog

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On computer download and install the tftp software from old version.com or cisco website. Setup the TFTP My computer--->c:\drive--->create a new folder (e.g.backup)--->after that open tftp server--->view--->tftp root directory--->select the backup folder. Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) is a simple lockstep file transfer protocol which allows a client to get a file from or put a file onto a remote host. One of its primary uses is in the early stages of nodes booting from a local area network. Tftp has been used for this application because it is very simple to implement. Tftp was first standard zed in 1981 and the current specification for the protocol can be found in rfc 1350. Due to simple design, tftp can be easily implemented by code with a small memory footprint. It is therefore the protocol of choice for the initial stages of any network booting strategy like bootp, pxe, bsdp, etc. When targeting from highly resorced single board computer (SBC) and system