Routing protocols and concepts ccna exploration companion guide

Dynamic routes are routes learned via routing protocols. Routing protocols are configured on routers with the purpose of exchanging routing

Routing protocols

Routing protocols

Dynamic routes are routes learned via routing protocols. Routing protocols are configured on routers with the purpose of exchanging routing information. There are many benefits of using routing protocols in your network, such as:

unlike static routing, you don’t need to manually configure every route on each router in the network. You just need to configure the networks to be advertised on a router directly connected to them.

if a link fails and the network topology changes, routers can advertise that some routes have failed and pick a new route to that network.

Types of routing protocols


  • There are two types of routing protocols:

1. Distance vector (RIP, IGRP)
2. Link state (OSPF, IS-IS)

Cisco has created its own routing protocol – EIGRP. EIGRP is considered to be an advanced distance vector protocol, although some materials erroneously state that EIGRP is a hybrid routing protocol, a combination of distance vector and link state.

All of the routing protocols mentioned above are interior routing protocols (IGP), which means that they are used to exchange routing information within one autonomous system. BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is an example of an exterior routing protocol (EGP) which is used to exchange routing information between autonomous systems on the Internet.

Distance vector protocols

As the name implies, distance vector routing protocols use distance to determine the best path to a remote network. The distance is something like the number of hops (routers) to the destination network.

Distance vector protocols usually send the complete routing table to each neighbor (a neighbor is directly connected router that runs the same routing protocol). They employ some version of Bellman-Ford algorithm to calculate the best routes. Compared with link state routing protocols, distance vector protocols are easier to configure and require little management, but are susceptible to routing loops and converge slower than the link state routing protocols. Distance vector protocols also use more bandwidth because they send complete routing table, while the link state procotols send specific updates only when topology changes occur.

RIP and EIGRP are examples of distance vector routing protocols.

Link state routing protocols

Link state routing protocols are the second type of routing protocols. They have the same basic purpose as distance vector protocols, to find a best path to a destination, but use different methods to do so. Unlike distance vector protocols, link state protocols don’t advertise the entire routing table. Instead, they advertise information about a network toplogy (directly connected links, neighboring routers…), so that in the end all routers running a link state protocol have the same topology database. Link state routing protocols converge much faster than distance vector routing protocols, support classless routing, send updates using multicast addresses and use triggered routing updates. They also require more router CPU and memory usage than distance-vector routing protocols and can be harder to configure.

Routing Protocol introduction


Routing Protocol is set of codes which is used to communicate between two or more computer or it is communication language which is use to communicate between computer.
  1. Tcp/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol.)
  2. Ipx/spx (intenet packet exchange/sequence packet exchange.)
  3. Net bios (network binary input output system.)
  4. AppleTalk
  5. Netware
  6. Irda (infrared data association)
  7. Bloetooth

Routing Protocol ports

Routing Protocol ports is the logical communicatication path which is used to communicate between two or more resources, or to understand the request of one device with another device you are required parts.

Total ports are generated 65535, well known ports are 3535.

 Sr. No. Routing Protocol port number
 1 echo (ping) 7
 2 ftp 21
 3  telnet 23
 4 smtp 25
 5 domain 53
 6 tftp 69
 7 http(hyper-text transfer protocol) 80
 8 kerberos 88
 9 pop3 110
 10 nntp (network news transfer protocol) 119
 11 Ntp (network time protocol) 123
 12 imap (use for mail download) 143
 13 SNMP 161
 14 https 445
 15 cmd (command prompt) 514

In os the port file is located in


C:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\services---->double click on file "services".

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Static routing protocols


Static routing protocols is a from of routing that occurs when a router uses a manually configured routing entry rather than information from a dynamic routing traffic. In many cases, static routes are manually configured by a network administrator by adding in entries into a routing table, thought this may not always be the case. Unlike dynamic routing are not mutually exclusive. Both dynamic routing and static routing are usually used on a router to maximise routing efficiency and to provide backups in the event that dynamic routing protocols information fails to be exchanged. Static routing protocols can also be used in stub network or to provide a gateway of last resort.
Static routing protocols can be used to define an exit point from a router when no other routes are available or necessary. This is called a default router.

Static routing protocols used


Static routing protocols can be used for small network that require only one or two routes. This is often more efficient since a link is not being wasted by experience dynamic routing protocols information.
Static routing protocols is often used as complement to dynamic routing protocols to provide a failsafe backup in the event that a dynamic Router is unavailable.

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