Laptop and desktop windows 10 instilling step by step datiles

 Windows 10 install While the Windows 10 upgrade process has gone smoothly for most Windows 7 and 8 users, it has caused problems for others. Upgrading from one version of Windows to another is rarely a great idea. Files left behind by the previous operation system often cause problems, as can changes made to those files by other applications. That’s why the usual advice for installing a new version of Windows is to perform a ‘clean’ install. Reformatting your hard drive before you install Windows gives a ‘factory fresh’ PC - you just need to reinstall your applications and copy back your documents to get you up and running again. There’s a big problem when doing this with Windows 10, though. First, anyone upgrading from Windows 7 or 8 won’t have a Windows 10 install disc — the upgrade comes via a download. Second, the Windows 10 upgrade doesn’t provide a product key, so there’s no way to activate it after a clean install. Fortunately, there is a way around this. Where’s my Windows 10

STP - spanning tree protocol explained with example

The spanning tree protocol ( STP ) is a network protocol that builds a loop free logical topology for ethernet network. The basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and the broadcast rediation that results from them. Spanning tree also allows a network design to include backup links providing fault tolerance if an active link fails. As the name suggests, stp create a spanning tree that characterizes the relationship of nodes within a network of connected layer - 2 bridges, and disable those links that are not part of the spanning tree, leaving a single active path between any two network nodes. STP is based on an algorithm that was invented by radia perlman while she was working for digital equipment corporation. In 2001, the IEEE introduced rapid spanning tree protocol (rstp) as 802.1 w. Rstp provide significant faster recovery in response to network changes or failures, introducing new convergence behaviour and bridge port roles to do this. Rstp was designed to be backwards

Nat (network address translation)

Nat Network address translation (nat) is a method of remapping an ip address space into another by modifying network address information in the ip header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing devices. The technique was originally used to avoid the need to assign a new address to every host when a network was moved, or when the upstream internet service provider was replaced, but could not Route the network address space. It has become a popular and essential tool in conserving global address space in the face of ipv4 address exhaustion. One internet routable IP address of a NAT gate way can be used for an entire private network. Ip masquerading is a technique that hides an entire IP address space, usually consisting of private IP addresses, behind a single IP address in another, usually public address space. The hidden addresses are changed into a single (public) IP address as the source address of the outgoing IP packets so they appear as originating not from

TFTP (travel file transfer protocol) | byblog

On computer download and install the tftp software from old or cisco website. Setup the TFTP My computer--->c:\drive--->create a new folder (e.g.backup)--->after that open tftp server--->view--->tftp root directory--->select the backup folder. Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) is a simple lockstep file transfer protocol which allows a client to get a file from or put a file onto a remote host. One of its primary uses is in the early stages of nodes booting from a local area network. Tftp has been used for this application because it is very simple to implement. Tftp was first standard zed in 1981 and the current specification for the protocol can be found in rfc 1350. Due to simple design, tftp can be easily implemented by code with a small memory footprint. It is therefore the protocol of choice for the initial stages of any network booting strategy like bootp, pxe, bsdp, etc. When targeting from highly resorced single board computer (SBC) and system

What is Telnet with example by blog

Telnet  Telnet(Telephonic network) It is using port no 23, this is the service which is use for remotely access router switch from any location. Telnet is an application protocol used on the internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in band with Telnet control information in an 8 bit byte oriented data connection over the transmission control protocol (TCP). Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15 extendad in RFC 855, and standard zed as internet engineering task force (ietf) internet standard STD 8, one of the first internet standards. Historically, Telnet provide access to a command line interface on a remote host. However, because of serious security concerns when using Telnet ove

Network switch and information switch vs router

Network switch introduction This is layer 2 device (data link layer devices) mostly. It is use for star topology; it is used to extend the network connectivity. A network switch is used in a wired network ot connect to other device using ethernet cables. The switch allows each connected device to talk to the others. Wireless only networks do not use switch because devices such as wireless routers and adapters communicate directly with one another. Although you can use the ports on the back of a router or modem to connect a few ethernet devices together, switch offer a number of advantages: Switches allow you to connect dozens of devices. Switches keep traffic between two devices from getting in the way of your other device on the same network. Switches allow you to control who has access to various parts of the network. Switches allow you to monitor usage. Switches allow communication (withing your network) that's even faster than the

Introduction to router of What is router?

Introduction to router What is router? Router is a layer 3 device or it is network layer device which is used for to connect different network with each other and judge the shorest path to transfer the data. Manufacture of router:- Cisco Juniper 3com Hp D-lint...etc. Internal component of router:- Microprocessor:- in this microprocessor we use the RISC technology it is available 70MHz up to 1.0 GHz and above. Generally Motorola companies microprocessor is use. Ram:- it is use to save running configuration available in 16, 32, 64, 128,256 MB. Flash:- this is hdd of router which is used to store os configuration of the router. Available in 16, 32, 64, 128 MB. Nvram:- it consist the startup configuration. Rom:- it is bios of router. External component of router